We are two weeks into our sockeye salmon season and so far the salmon has returned in record numbers. Kodiak salmon fishing is managed by the State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G). ADF&G have divided the Island into geographic management areas because the primary salmon rivers and streams in each area have different escapement goals. The Northwest Management Area includes the Karluk river system which is the primary river that is used to count salmon escapement. ADF&G have a counting station (weir) on the river and track the number of sockeye that return in order to ensure that adequate salmon return to sustain the run and also that the run does not “over escape” where too many salmon return which would potentially have an adverse impact on the Karluk Lake’s ability to support young salmon smolts. As the season progresses, ADF&G opens and closes the season to manage for the desired salmon escapement levels. This not only protects the salmon but the many fishermen who rely upon a healthy fishery for their livelihoods.
I was going talk more about salmon, but came across this fascinating blog by Anjuli Grantham that details some of the history of the Karluk area. Salmon fishing has taken place in Karluk for centuries but it was only in the late 1800’s that major canneries first set up on the Karluk Spit and began to process salmon. In those days, most salmon was canned and can labels were distinctive and unique. Here is Anjuli’s blog, hope you enjoy this glimpse of history!
(Note: This is republished from the Baranov Museum’s blog, www.blogspot.com/baranovmuseum)
By: Anjuli Grantham
I admit it. I have lusted over this Alaska Improvement Company can from the moment I read that Kodiak resident Nick Troxell had purchased it on e-bay. In fact, I went so far as to save a place for it in the fisheries exhibit that we are putting together as part of the Baranov Museum’s exhibit redesign project.
Now, I am overjoyed to report that I can replace the words on the exhibit object list, “Nick T.’s salmon can: procure,” with “Alaska Improvement Company salmon can from Nick T.” Thanks to him, the Baranov Museum has the first historic Kodiak salmon can in our collection. It joins a box end from an Alaska Packers Association cannery at Karluk and a handful of other objects related to the early history of salmon fishing and processing in the region, and helps us to document and interpret Kodiak’s incredible maritime heritage.
The story of canning salmon at Karluk ranks as one of the more important stories in the history of Kodiak, if not Alaska. For fisheries biologists, the story of Karluk’s fishery is important on a worldwide scale, as the prodigious historic salmon runs boggle the mind and have inspired generations of research. In fact, speaking of science, one can trace the history of salmon biology to the Karluk River. It so happens that a team of fisheries biologists are in the final stages of creating a book that focuses on the history of science in the Karluk River system. A History of Sockeye Salmon Research, Karluk River System, Alaska, 1880-2010 will be published in 2014. I interviewed one of the authors, Dr. Richard Borttoff, for the most recent episode of the radio program Way Back in Kodiak, “Canned at Karluk.
Of course, it wasn’t just scientists who were interested in the Karluk red salmon runs. Thousands of fishermen and cannery workers joined the hundreds of Karluk villagers on the Karluk Spit, beginning in the 1880s. The first cannery to open on Kodiak Island opened on the Karluk Spit in 1882. The Karluk Packing Co. was financed by the Alaska Commercial Company and founded by two former AC employees, Oliver Smith and Charles Hirsch. These gentlemen salted salmon on the Karluk Spit prior to opening what was one of the earliest canneries in Alaska. Yet, word quickly got out about the massive salmon runs within the Karluk River. This is not hyperbole- it wasn’t rare to catch 40,000 sockeye in a single beach seine set at Karluk in the 1880s and 1890s.
Our salmon can dates from somewhere between 1889 and 1911. It was in 1889 that the Alaska Improvement Company began canning at Karluk. They built a cannery on the south side of the Karluk River, across from the Karluk Spit. Long after canning operations were transferred to Larsen Bay, the beach was referred to as “the Improvement side.” In 1898, the Alaska Improvement Company joined the Alaska Packers Association (APA). That was the end of the Alaska Improvement Company, but not of its labels. For brand affiliation, the APA continued to can under the Canoe brand. Further research is required to determine when the APA added its own insignia to the can. However, in 1911 all canning operations were moved to Larsen Bay. As a result, that was the last year that cans were made and filled on the Karluk Spit, though much of the salmon canned at Larsen Bay still was beach seined from the Karluk Spit.
Thanks to Anjuli and the Alaska Historical Society for this unique perspective on early salmon fishing. The images of the Alaska Improvement Brand and Canoe Brand cans tell a story of a different age in both fishing and salmon consumption. The image of Karluk spit from 1889 and image of the fishermen mending their nets also tell a story of a different age in salmon fishing and processing. If you like history (and we do) we will bring more season updates and salmon fishing history – stay tuned.